The Keidanren Voluntary Action Plan on the Environment is an environment action plan devised by the Nippon Keidanren (Japan Business Federation). The plan makes no commitment to the Japanese government that the target will be met. It started in 1997, and there are 35 industries including energy, mining, manufacturing and construction participating in the plan related to the section on climate change. The plan aims to stabilize CO2 emissions from fuel combustion and industrial processes at 1990 level by 2010.
However, the 35 industries have selected their own target indices such as gross CO2 emissions, CO2 emissions per unit, energy consumption, and energy efficiency. Industries choosing efficiency targets also set arbitrary production levels. The Keidanren plan bundled these industry targets together as one.
This plan is included in the Kyoto Protocol Target Achievement Plan of Japan, but there is no agreement with the government to assure the targets are reached. The Keidanren has not disclosed the basis of the target levels used in the plan, and these have not been discussed with open participation.
The Keidanren has used this voluntary action plan as a reason for opposing the implementation of effective policies in Japan. An assessment should be made as to whether or not the Keidanren plan is better than emission trading or carbon tax.

  1. Characteristics of the CO2 emission structure centered on the manufacturing industry in Japan
  2. The best energy efficiency among developed countries is achieved due to energy conservation in residential and transport sectors in Japan
  3. Industries choose arbitrary indices and set the easier targets
  4. Dramatic increase in coal usage runs counter to environmental efforts
  5. Is Japanese industry really the most energy efficient?
  6. Risk of not achieving the target
Full text

Fact sheet of the Keidanren Voluntary Action Plan (755KB)