<From “Kiko Network News” Vol.37, July 2004>


* Current Status in understanding the emission data from industries *

It is indispensable to understand the actual emission data to promote measures for climate change in industries. However, no system for reporting and releasing the amount of CO2 emissions at each facility of industries is established at present. The Energy Conservation Law obligates all designated factories to report the amount of consumption of "fuels, etc" and "electricity" in their annual reports, but those data had never been released.
Kiko Network borrowed the data on energy consumption disclosed by 4004 facilities (2505 for fuels etc. and 3404 for electricity) and independently figured out the amount of CO2 emissions at each facility by counting and analyzing them .Based on the result, the CO2 emission data at each facility in Japan has been revealed for the first time.

In June, Kiko Network revealed the CO2 emissions data at each business facility (factory) nationwide, by analyzing the data for the Energy Conservation Law, which has never been released in the past.
Analysis was based on the data about the consumption of fuels and electricity at each designated factory between April and July in 2002. It was released by the Regional Bureaus of Economy, Trade and Industry in response to Mr. Kenichi Mizuno's (a member of the House of Representatives) request in 2002 for the disclosure of the information on the energy consumption at each business facility (factory) in the fiscal year 2000 under the Energy Conservation Law.
As a result, energy consumption at each factory of manufacturers was unveiled across the board, and the actual status of CO2 emissions was revealed to a certain extent.It was so significant that the following issues became clear.

A great part of emissions was from a small number of business facilities (factories).

Total amount of direct emissions from 3317 facilities (3317 of 4004 disclosed their data) was approximately 406 Mt- CO2 and it accounted for one-third of 1,239 Mt-CO2 tons, total amount of the nationwide CO2 emissions in 2000.
Most of the emissions were from a small number of large-scale business facilities (20 % of emissions were only from top 50 facilities and one-fourth or more of emissions over the nation was from top 100 facilities ), which reveals that emissions were from the quite limited sources.
In this request of information disclosure, some business facilities refused to disclose the data of energy consumption by blacking out figures, and many of them were large-scale business facilities.It is assumed that one-fourth or less of total amount of emissions nationwide were from those 100 business facilities : steel industry with blast furnace, petroleum refining industry, and cement industry. (Estimation based on the Structural Survey of Petroleum Consumption by METI). Summing up these data, a half of total amount of CO2 (direct) emissions in Japan is considered to be only from about 200 business facilities.
Approximately 5 million medium-scale business facilities with more than 30 employees are in operation in the nation. However, the result of the analysis shows that it is essential that 100-200 of large-scale business facilities would take the measures for the prevention of climate change.

Business facilities which did not disclose are concentrated in particular industries.

687 (17.2%) in 4004 business facilities did not disclose the data. In particular, four energy intensity industries such as steel, cement, petroleum, and chemicals refused to disclose the amount of consumption of fuel and electricity as a part of their corporate secret.Though being accounted in large-scale, most of the facilities in power utilities and paper manufacturers disclosed their data. Among them, none of blast furnace steel mills disclosed, but according to the estimation from the data provided in the Structural Survey of Petroleum Consumption by METI, the amount of emissions per business facility was assumed about 13 Mt-CO2, (comparable to approximately 1% of Japan's total CO2 emissions). It means that the amount of CO2 emissions at a single business facility is almost the same as that in medium-scale prefecture (for example, 14 to 15 Mt-CO2 in Aomori prefecture and Iwate prefecture). If those business facilities had disclosed their data, they should have been ranked in top of the list.
In the first place, data such as the energy consumption is not to be included in corporate secrets. It is indicated in the fact that many business facilities disclosed such data. It is to be discussed why competent authority METI accepted their refusals of disclosure.
Following issues have been emerged from the result of the analysis.

[1] Importance of reporting and releasing the data on CO2 emissions

With the release of the data on energy consumption and CO2 emissions at each business facility, it is revealed that the amount of emissions from a small number of large-scale business facilities accounted for a large part of entire emissions. In this way, publicly understanding the actual situation of emissions at each business facility is meaningful in considering the appropriate and effective measures to prevent climate change.

[2] Suggestion for the institutionalization of the disclosure and release of data

With the review of the national climate policy this year, the establishment of the system to disclose and release the data on the amount of emissions is immediately needed as a fundamental system for facilities to take the measures to prevent climate change. For this purpose, a partial revision of the Energy Conservation Law is considered as one process.
However, the disclosure and release of other greenhouse gases including fluorinated gases are rather to be considered with a revision of the Law Concerning the Promotion of the Measures to Cope with Global Warming for the prevention of climate change, or with the Law Concerning Reporting, etc. of Releases to the Environment of Specific Chemical Substances and Promoting Improvements in Their Management (PRTR Law) in which reporting and releasing are institutionalized. Handling the information electronically can be helpful for the coordination with the procedure under the Energy Conservation Law.